Author of the Month

Michigan Copper in the Mediterranean
By Jay Stuart Wakefield, MES & AAPF

Books by J.S. Wakefield

Rocks & Rows

Rocks & Rows

US - UK - CA

How the SunGod Reached America C.2500 BC: A Guide to Megalithic Sites

How the SunGod Reached America C.2500 BC

US - UK - CA

Jay Stuart Wakefield

For Aug. 2011 Author of the Month please welcome Jay Stuart Wakefield, co author, with Reinoud M. De Jonge, of the comprehensive work “Rocks & Rows – Sailing Routes Across the Atlantic and the Copper trade.” Join Jay this month, on the AoM message boards for a lively discussion on the work, research and theories documented in this in-depth study of the megalithic subject.

Born 1943, grew up on Mercer Island, Washington, and Truro, Cape Cod, with several years on a sailboat in the Bahamas. He was educated at Dartmouth and the University of Washington, in Biology. He was married in 1977 to former Suzanne Winslow Mygatt PhD, now a retired high school counselor. He has done real estate construction and development, and was president of small property management and research organizations. He has been a computer newsletter editor and book editor, and built a 46’ ketch and chartered it as its licensed skipper. Following a 4-generation family history of archaeological collecting, he has devoted the last 15 years to the study of megalithic monuments and petroglyphs. He has written two books, and about 25 magazine articles. He presents Powerpoints frequently about his Museum of the Axeheads of Man / Timeline Library, the Atlantic Copper Trade, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic, and Megalithic sites in Europe and America. email:
See his websites: and

The Shipping of Michigan Copper across the Atlantic in the Bronze Age (Isle Royale and Keweenaw Peninsula, c. 2400BC-1200 BC)


Recent scientific literature has come to the conclusion that the major source of the copper that swept through the European Bronze Age after 2500 BC is unknown. However, these studies claim that the 10 tons of copper oxhide ingots recovered from the late Bronze Age (1300 BC) Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey was “extraordinarily pure” (more than 99.5% pure), and that it was not the product of smelting from ore. The oxhides are all brittle “blister copper”, with voids, slag bits, and oxides, created when the oxhides were made in multiple pourings outdoors over wood fires. Only Michigan Copper is of this purity, and it is known to have been mined in enormous quantities during the Bronze Age.
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