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The Great Pyramid;
Symbols and Hieroglyphs in the King's Chamber (cont.)
By Richard E. Ford

V. The third celestial sphere and its figures

In considering the coordinates from the Chamber's 3rd course, their locations on the celestial sphere when projected downwards onto a flat surface, create the following plot:

3rd row symbols
The figures created by the celestial coordinates in the 3rd course of stones
Figure 4

Each of the eight triangles created by the plot is a right triangle, with angles of: 54°─36°─90°. This triangle was considered sacred to the ancient Egyptians and was called mr or mer. They believe that God used this triangle when he laid out the universe and when he created Egypt, which they called Tomer, or land of mr. Pythagoras and Euclid would later attach great significance to this triangle, believing it to be imbued with almost magical properties.

If two of the triangles from the plot are combined to create one of 72°─54°─54°, as is depicted in the figure above, and then the surrounding circle is then marked off into similar 72° segments, the familiar five-pointed star is created when the triangles' intersecting points with the surrounding circle are connected to one another. (See the two figures below.) The five-pointed star was a mnemonic or memory device, which in this case was used by the ancient Egyptians to perform trigonometric calculations. The star also embodies two crossed arrowheads, which is the symbol of the most ancient goddess Neith, the Mother of the Gods. Each of the lines of the five-pointed star intersects with another, producing the exact proportion of the golden mean at the point of intersection.

3rd row circle divided into 72 degree segments
The circle from the 3rd course of stones marked off into 72° segments
Figure 5
The five-pointed star, symbol of Neith, Mother of the Gods
The five-pointed star, symbol of Neith, Mother of the Gods
Figure 6

The figures from the 3rd course plot and the five-pointed star derived from them provide a wealth of additional symbols and hieroglyphs.

The 54°─36°─90° triangle that is found in the figures of this sphere is the hieroglyph picture,mr, or mer, which is the root for the verb, to love or to want in ancient Egyptian. The ancient Greeks considered this triangle to be the basic building block of the cosmos, a belief likely passed along to them by the ancient Egyptians.

The five-pointed star picture, dwpictureor dua, that can be derived from these figures is the ancient Egyptian symbol for a star, and is the root for the ancient Egyptian verb, dua, meaning to adore or to praise.

The five-pointed star within a circle picture, dwpicturet, or duat, is the ancient Egyptian symbol for the underworld or place of the soul's transformation. However, there are considerable differences of opinion amongst modern scholars as to the meaning assigned to the duat by the ancient Egyptians and the issue is by no means a settled one.

The rectangle found in these figures is the ancient Egyptian hieroglyph picture for letter p which also symbolizes heaven.[2] A variation on this rectangle arises from the triangles formed from any given side of the pentagon and the star tip opposite it, each of which defines an isosceles triangle of 72°─36°─72° (If the base of this triangle is equal to 1.0 then each of its sides is equal to 1.618―the golden mean―which is the reason this triangle is referred to as the golden triangle. If the sides of this triangle are opened out so that each side creates a right angle with the base and the opening opposite is closed off by a line equal to the length of the base, a rectangle is formed with longer sides each equal to the golden mean. This figure is the golden rectangle of geometry.

If a square is marked off in a golden rectangle, the remaining portion forms another golden rectangle, which can be similarly divided ad infinitum. Similarly, if a square is drawn alongside the longer side of a golden rectangle, a larger golden rectangle is formed, a process that can be continued ad infinitum as well. This unique quality makes the golden rectangle a geometric progression. It is possible that the hieroglyph, picture for the letter, h, may have derived from the golden rectangle's progression.

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  1. Interpretation found in John Anthony West, Traveler's Key to Ancient Egypt (Weaton, Illinois: Quest Edition, 1995) page195. [back to text]

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