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Martian Cataclysm: Impact energy analysis in support of the origin of multiple anomolies on Mars (cont.)
by Gary R. Spexarth

4.0 Failure Features at the Tharsis Montes

Figure 4
Figure-4: Six-sided star pattern observed in the rupture of thin-walled pressure vessels in a laboratory experiment [19], [20].

Hypervelocity impact tests of thin-walled pressure vessels pressurized with liquid have shown that the failure modes of the vessels caused by internal pressure increase produce six-sided petal-shaped formations as shown in Figure-4 [19] [20]. Similarly, Figure- 5 [21] shows six and twelve-sided petal formations during the rupture of an apple due to the pressure build-up of a bullet's shock wave passing through it.

Figure 5
Figure-5: Six and 12-sided star patterns observed in the rupture of an apple in a laboratory experiment [21].

The exact same type of six-petal shape formation can be seen in the Tharsis Montes region, as shown in Figures 6 and 7!

In fact, when analyzing the Tharsis Montes region, radial features originating at the center of the Tharsis Montes were discovered by de la Fuente [22]. The volcanoes and crustal fractures lie at 60-degrees to one another, thus forming a typical six-sided rupture formation! (This formation is also observed on 3- dimensional globes, and is not an artifact of 2- dimensional maps).

These radial fractures may have been the source of the massive volcanoes observed in the Tharsis region, as well as the initiation of the Valles Marineris as a rupture in the lithosphere.

In addition, several radial fractures extend to the south, west, and north of the Tharsis uplift that are a few kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers long. Orientations of these structures are consistent with the stress distribution that is to be expected from regional doming. [23]

Figure 6
Figure-6: MOLA Topography Map of Mars with 6-Sided Petal Formation Shown. This pattern is typical during rupture of thin-walled pressure vessels [4] (radial lines and labels added by author) (formation best observed on color map)

The radial fractures identified in the Tharsis Montes region provide evidence that the Tharsis Montes region may have been formed due to an internal pressure build up, rather than through geological processes.

Figure 7
Figure-7: Six-sided star patter observed in the Tharsis region. This pattern is typical during rupture of thin-walled pressure vessels. [19], [20], [21] (radial lines added by author) (formation best observed on color map)

In other words, the internal pressure buildup due to the massive Hellas impact quite possibly ruptured the planet (Valles Marineris), bulged the planet (Tharsis Montes), and formed 60-degree radial fractures (typical of pressure failures) with massive volcanoes originating along these fractures.

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