Evidence of Vitrified Stonework in the Inca Vestiges of Peru (cont.)
By Jan Peter de Jong & Christopher Jordan
pictured above provoke much debate. Explanations on how they were
produced vary from the use of advanced machines, simple metal or
stone tools, molded stonework, concentrated sunlight and fire
methods. Whilst the analysis above says little about the way the
shapes were made, it does eliminate some ideas on the means of
producing these exquisite finishes.
on the stone sample was not the thickest, shiniest or the glassiest
of the examples. However, its composition and morphology are the same
as a ceramic glaze. This means that heat was somehow applied to the
stone. How the heat was applied is not clear. What is clear is that
an unknown technology has been used. To create ceramics on this
scale, the heat production must have been greater than the normal
referenced work on the stonework of Peru was produced by Protzen. His
work deals primarily with the carving of the stones with primitive
tools. However, Protzen has looked at these effects and has suggested
it could be achieved with polishing. To date, only Andesite has been
attempted with very limited success. After the analysis of the
surface layer above, it is clear that polishing alone will not
produce the requisite heat needed to produce a ceramic glaze. This
eliminates polishing as a means of creation.
and form of the phenomena also precludes carving and polishing. It
would take truly incredible amounts of time to produce a single
vestige, let alone the thousands that dot the landscape.
Alfredo Gamarra has identified vitrification on many stones and has
argued that the ancients had a technology to treat stone with heat
and that the stone was soft at the moment of construction. The
comparison at the spectrum level with clay and ceramic pastes is
interesting. Ceramic pastes and clay are soft prior to being treated
geological understanding is not compatible with this idea. However,
the impression from the vitrified stonework is that the stone was
once soft. In many of the stones, there are places where it looks as
if objects or molds were pressed into the stone. The perfect fitting
stones in the walls of Cusco and the other Inca vestiges could have
been obtained more easily this way.
stones were fired in a kiln like bricks, the glaze could be a result
of the extremely high temperatures. It is not uncommon for the bricks
in ancient kilns to get so hot they melt. This usually occurs near
the top of the chamber where the heat rises. The knowledge of
ceramics in ancient Peru suggests this is a distinct possibility.
This prospect however, only arises with the stones that can be placed
in a kiln or stonework that is part of a kiln.
examples laid onto the sides of huge natural rocks cannot have been
produced by standard fire techniques. The European studies of
vitrified forts and experimental work show that it is not possible to
create the consistent heat required for the smooth finishes. Compared
to the European examples there must have been a much more controlled
process, since the layers in Peru are even over large parts of the
stone surfaces. The scale of giant perfect fitting walls and some
vitrified mountain walls makes the technology question even more
complicated than in Europe.
option is the use of sun dishes and concentrated sunlight by the
ancients. This is briefly discussed by Prof. Watkins in his 1990
paper on fine Inca stonework. He did consider these stones to be
vitrified, ''The rock surfaces on Inca stones are similar to those
that have been thermally disaggregated. Indeed, some of the slick
surfaces on the Inca building stones are glazed, so it becomes
apparent that the Incas must have used thermal disaggregation.''
seminal paper, his chief concern was the methods of cutting the
stone. Since he was proposing intense heat to cut the stones, it was
not a large step to consider the stones melted. His conclusions have
been much maligned since there had been no analyses performed.
analysis above does point in this direction, but the location of the
test sample raises issues. Clearly the stone was not moved before or
after the glaze was created. The ceramic paste had to be heated
whilst on the stone vestige. This means light would have to be
reflected deep into the cave. Whilst it is possible that the ancients
were capable of producing flat mirrors for the task, it does seem
overly complicated. This method could work for stones on the surface,
but is clearly limited in its use deep within a cave.
possibility is that the cave itself was a kiln. Pots or vases may
have been fired in the cave and the ceramic pastes may have been
applied to protect the stone mass of the structure. There is a lot of
stone discoloration within the cave and innumerable glazed areas.
There are several things that could confirm this view. There would be
a route for the smoke to exit. There would be evidence of soot
deposits, though they may have been washed away over the years. The
comparison to Inca vestiges with vitrification found out in the open
air or in places without a smoke escape, leaves many open questions.
balance, it has to be admitted that a method is difficult to define.
Further analysis of samples from the various locations needs to be
undertaken to confirm the use of heat in all of the sites. However,
the sample tested shows explicitly that the similarity to ceramic
pastes is near certain. It is obvious to conclude that heat was used.
The treatment method may have been similar to the technology used for
ceramic pastes, only on a much larger scale. It is suggested that
further investigations are carried out at the geochemical level to
shed more light on what happened to these stones and what technology
complete version including all the data, graphics and pictures,
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of the Sun Sects
Gamarra Farfan especially, for showing, explaining and filming these
following persons we want to thank for their cooperation and
Schuiling, Tilly Bouten and Anita van Leeuwen, Geology department
University of Utrecht.
Kars, Institute for Geo and Bioarchaeology, IGBA, Faculty of Earth
and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
Ancient Solar Premise, Smashword edition, 2011,
Farfán, J.B., Parawayso. April 2008.
Jan Peter, www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com
M., The great pyramid secret, Scribal arts 2010.
J.-P. l986. Inca stonemasonry. Scientific Amer. 254: 94-105.
Watkins, I. 1990. How Did the Incas Create Such Beautiful
Stonemasonry?" in "Rocks and Minerals" Vol. 65 Nov/Dec
B, Wie hielp de mens? Uitgeverij Aspekt. 2008.
-X - Ray
spectra of minerals and materials:
R. Bertolino, Victor Galván Josa, Alejo C. Carreras, Andrés
Laguens, Guillermo de la Fuente and José A. Riveros in Wiley
Interscience Online, Dec. 2008. X-Ray
Techniques Applied to Surface Paintings of Ceramic Pottery Pieces
From Aguada Culture (Catamarca, Argentina).
Cosmogony of the Three World
of the Sun Sects
Ancient Solar Premise , The
Secrets of the Sun Sects