Evidence of Vitrified Stonework in the Inca Vestiges of Peru (cont.)
By Jan Peter de Jong & Christopher Jordan
THE PERUVIAN CASE STUDY
vitrified examples under study for this paper come from famous
Peruvian sites, considered to belong to the Incas, in South America.
To the author's knowledge, there have been no scientific tests made
on these stones. This has left the debate open to claims of unusual
polishing techniques, natural degradation, lava flows and many other
odd explanations. The analysis below eliminates some of these ideas.
vitrified stones of Peru were first brought to popular attention by
Erich von Daniken in the 1970s. He saw the vitrification at
Sacsayhuaman and noted it in his book Chariots of the Gods. Peruvian
Alfredo Gamarra had identified this vitrification earlier. The
identification and cataloging of these intriguing stones has been
carried on by Alfredo's son Jesus Gamara, and Jan Peter de Jong.
Sacsayhuaman, there are many indications
of the use of heat. Strange marks on the stones like the one on the
right can be found; shiny, completely smooth and with another color
to the rest of the rock.
appears on different kinds of stones and structures. It is found on
the perfectly fitted walls with irregular blocks. It is also observed
on walls made with regular oblong blocks. It has been spotted on
mountainsides, caves and rocks in situ. The location arrangements
vary as well. Some sites are surrounded or overbuilt by walls whilst
others have single exposed isolated stones. There seems to have been
some very adaptable ancient technology at work. A list of vestiges
where stonework seems to have been treated with this technology
include; Inside the city of Cusco: the walls of Koricancha and Loreto
Street, Sacsayhuaman, Kenko, Tetecaca, Templo de la Luna (or Amaru
Machay), Zona X, Tambo Machay, Puca Pucara, Pisac, Ollantaytambo,
Chinchero, Machu Picchu, Raqchi and in Bolivia in Tiahuanaco.
assume that the perfect fitting stones are the most developed style
of the Incas. Regardless, there is no explanation of the shiny
surfaces that can be observed. These often appear on the borders
where the stones join perfectly. There has been nothing other than
simple geological analysis of these stones to determine what the
phenomenon is. No chemical analysis is known to have been executed.
It is normally assumed that these parts were simply polished by the
many visits to the vestiges mentioned, Jesus Gamarra and Jan Peter de
Jong have examined these stones with highly reflective surfaces. They
have captured many of them on video. Through personal observations
and analysis of the video material, they have concluded that
something other than polishing must have occurred.
material convinces in several ways. Many cases display some or all of
the following qualities mentioned below. The vitrified spots show
discoloration and smoothness around the particular areas. They
clearly look like the stone has been melted just in those spots.
flashlight test was developed, which helps to identify the layers of
glaze or glass. Filming was carried out at night with a flashlight
beam passing through the glaze. This shows the reflection and
diffraction of the light as it passes through the surface.
Sacsayhuaman, Kenko and Loreto Street were all filmed at night using
a flashlight or the nocturnal illumination to capture the effect.