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White Island on the Ocean (cont.)
Seven Landscape Mysteries of Bronze Age Britain, A Unified Theory
By William Glyn-Jones

So those are the seven mysteries relevant to the theory here outlined. Of course there are other mysteries linked to the themes we have discussed - the Pharaoh simulacra seen in a reflection of one of the great stones of Avebury Henge by Robert Lamont (, the geometry for the cross-section of the Great Pyramid found across a range of sites in Wiltshire, including, again, the Avebury Henge, by David Furlong (described in The Keys to the Temple), the observation that the Avebury Henge together with the circular chalk banks of nearby Windmill Hill and the sacred circle of the Sanctuary together replicate the Orion configuration and the orientation of the Thornborough henges, the ankh symbols found engraved on megalithic stones in Northwest Europe (The Mediterranean Race, Sergi), the fact that the Egyptologist-archaeologist Flinders Petrie examined the stones of the old well beside Glastonbury Tor and reckoned it to be Egyptian work, or even the mediumistic channeling of Joan Grant author of the novel Winged Pharaoh in the 1930's, which linked Avebury with Old Kingdom Egypt, and more besides - but we have plenty here to be going on with.

The Iberian Connection

Having now outlined these seven mysteries we can note certain commonalities: massiveness of scale, a proclivity for working with chalk, and suggested links with Egypt. Is the last of these three feasible?

Certainly it is possible - the Old Kingdom Egyptians had large ocean-going ships and there are records of king Sneferu of the 3rd Dynasty, father of the builder of the Great Pyramid, organizing expeditions to collect resources from distant lands across the seas. Britain had gold, as well as the tin needed to make bronze.

A step from mere possibility towards feasibility comes when we consider the Iberian connection. A large number of Egyptian artifacts have been found in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Evans speaks of examples from the 3rd Dynasty, concurrent therefore with the British Early Bronze Age.

DNA evidence discussed by Stephen Oppenheimer in The Origins of the British tells us that it was probably also the Iberian Peninsula fairly early in the Bronze Age from which the language of the insular Celts came to Britain, carried by an elite. (No major population displacement took place, and the old idea that the Celts came from central Europe in the Iron Age doesn't match the DNA evidence at all.)

If we are now to see the origins of Celtic culture and language in Neolithic or Early Bronze Age Iberia, then we can probably say that the priests of this proto-Celtic elite - the blanket term for the priest of the Insular Celts being Druid - did indeed oversee the construction of British megalithic monuments of the Early Bronze Age, rather as the old English Antiquarians imagined, for the DNA 'clan' in question coincides well with the regions where we see such monuments. This recent DNA work also accords with the ideas of those linguists such as Professor John Rhys and Professor Morris Jones who noticed that Welsh and Irish contain syntax and pre-Indo-European idiom remnants "derived from a language allied to Egyptian and Berber tongues." (The Welsh People, Pr.M.Jones) With possible Egyptian-connected Iberian colonies co-existing with an elite from Iberia who took up position at the top of the cultural hierarchy in Britain, an Egypto-British connection starts to look less strange, and even such fringe ideas as interaction between Egyptian priests and Druids - if we are using that term for the priests of these proto-Celts - become entirely viable for consideration. Avebury, as I've said, was completed by people who had adopted the round barrow-building Beaker Culture, and this culture spread right down to the South of Spain and even to the North Coast of Africa, in northern Morocco (where there is even, as well as a Beaker settlement, a stone circle, at Msoura), hinting at an extensive potential trade network. Beaker burials have also been found at the other henge sites mentioned in this article, namely the Thornborough Complex, and Dorchester-on-Thames. The daggers of the Beaker People are also curiously similar to Egyptian examples, and due to their grave goods these people are thought of as having been a kind of aristocratic elite. Connections between kings in different lands are known to have been intimate from such early times, as letters between, for example, pharaohs and Mesopotamian and Hittite leaders show, and connections with Bronze Age Greek sites like Mycenae are known to have been equally strong.

The Pattern Emerges

First Steps

I can still remember the moments when I took the first steps along the path of what would turn out to be an amazing treasure hunt. I was contemplating Michel's "St Michael Line", Mystery 4 in our list. I didn't fully buy the attempted debunking by another giant of British landscape mysteries. I must admit however that the attempted debunking did cause me to approach the topic from new angles. Some of Michel's initial speculations about origins and purpose seemed to have been taken on as gospel by certain factions of the New Age fraternity, but I began to doubt the idea that the St Michael Line was initially plotted out along the course of a pre-existing stream of Earth energy. I felt more drawn to a humanist stance. "What a work is man!" says Thrice Greatest Hermes. Just because we detect an awesome numinous halo around an idea, it does not necessarily mean that it was not produced by the hands of humans. Great art and architecture teaches us this, and sacred geometry can have such an alchemical effect. And if the ancients were the founders of the alignment, were the Feng Shui/Earth acupuncture traditions of China really the best place to search for hints of the mindset of those ancients? The alignment itself still seemed genuinely intriguing, and Michel's original intuition still drew me, but intuition doesn't always deal in exactness; it guides us along the way. So though I myself, like many others, could feel the intuitive draw of the St Michael's Line concept, I felt it was time for a fresh approach.

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