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The Great Pyramid and the North Pole of the Ecliptic (cont.)
By Richard E. Ford

The Great Seat

The available literature of the ancient Egyptians reveals that they were fascinated by the existence of a pole in the heavens about which the cosmos appeared to turn in endless fashion, and they referred to it as the Great Seat or the Throne of God and identified it with the god, Ptah. Many students of this literature have assumed that the great seat was the NPOCS, without giving any serious consideration or thought to the possibility that the ancient Egyptians may have been referring to the NPOE, instead. As discussed earlier, the technical knowledge and extensive records of celestial observations necessary for the detection of the NPOE was considered far beyond the capabilities of the ancient Egyptians. However, as the following will show, their references to the Great Seat were to the NPOE and not the NPOCS.

The evidence for this begins with the sacred mer triangle, the right triangle with angles of, 54°-36°-90°; a triangle believed by Livio Catullo Stecchini to have given its name to the land itself, To-Mer (Appended Monograph in Peter Tompkins; Secrets of the Great Pyramid; Harper and Row; p. 291). Plato spoke of this triangle in Timaeus, and stated that it had been used by God to delineate the cosmos. It would later fascinate Euclid, as well as the Pythagoreans whose symbol for their secret society was the five-pointed star, which is produced from a combination of such triangles. It is also intimately connected with the transcendental number φ, a number of almost mystical significance that is commonly referred to as the golden mean. The discovery of this triangle and its features has long been credited to the Greeks, but credit likely belongs to the Egyptians, as will be borne out in the following.

From the Great Pyramid's location, which for all intents and purposes lies on the 30th parallel of latitude, the NPOCS can be observed at a constant angular altitude of 30° above the horizon, a position from which it never varies. This is explained by the fact that the location of the NPOCS is determined by the location of Earth's North Pole, which remains constant, while the actual location of NPOCS in the heavens shifts along the circle surrounding the NPOE due to the earth's precessional movement. It takes the NPOCS approximately 25, 920 years to make a complete circle around the NPOE.

From the pyramid's location, the NPOE appears to move in a continuous circular motion about the NPOCS, but this perception is caused by the rotation of the Earth. In fact, it is the NPOCS that moves about the NPOE and not the other way around. However, it is the apparent motion of the NPOE that is important to our purposes for the moment. During its daily apparent motion about the NPOCS, the NPOE swings in a broad circle that has a radius of some 24° from the NPOCS, across the celestial sphere. At its lowest location along this circle, the NPOE is located at an angular altitude of 6° above the horizon, while it reaches its highest location at an angle of 54° above the horizon. Its lowest point is referred to as its inferior culmination or lower culmination, while its highest rise is referred to as its superior or upper culmination. In the northern hemisphere, superior culmination is also referred to as "southing", as its location in the heavens is literally south of the NPOCS and along the same meridian or line of longitude of the location from where it is being observed.

The NPOE's superior culmination at an angle of 54° at the Pyramid's location obviously is directly related to the mer triangle, as can be seen from the following drawing. The ramification of this are both apparent and far reaching, and among other things suggest that this triangle ties heaven to earth, a fact that must have fascinated the ancient Egyptians. Perhaps it also holds the possibility of a much broader meaning of the term ankh-tawy, a name frequently associated with the nearby ancient city of Memphis. By common understanding this term has long been interpreted to mean the knot that ties or binds the two lands, Upper to Lower Egypt. However, in light of the foregoing, could it also mean the knot that ties heaven to earth through the location of the Great Pyramid? And could it be that the mer triangle provides this tie, defining not only Egypt as the Land of Mer, but also providing the key as to how it was surveyed and laid out? I believe it did all of this and more.

It is also relevant that the term "southing" may hold the key to an understanding of a very perplexing variation on the name of the god Ptah: "Ptah, South-of-His-Wall." Many people have assumed that this name was applied to Ptah, because his temple may have been located south of the walls surrounding Memphis, but this argument is very tenuous at best. A far better argument could be made that it refers to the upper culmination of the NPOE at the Pyramid's location, from where the apparent circle that the NPOE traces about the NPOCS can readily be perceived as a "wall" that the NPOE literally travels around eternally, never varying in its course. If the ancient Egyptians perceived it similarly, then "Ptah, South-of-His-Wall", literally refers to the "southing" of the NPOE along the "wall" of its apparent circle of movement. If this is indeed so, then the ancient Egyptians appear to have quite clearly identified Ptah with the NPOE.

The ramifications of the ancient Egyptians knowledge of and familiarity with the NPOE are enormous. Obviously they were fully capable of long term and accurate measurements of minute and almost imperceptible celestial movements. This required discipline, organization, well-established and reliable procedures, instruments for celestial observation and measurement of the very highest technical order, and accurate record keeping. How had the ancient Egyptians managed all of this? And why had they gone to such extraordinary lengths over such a seemingly arcane issue in the first place? The questions reverberate like thunder, while the mind reels and our understanding of history shudders at the prospect!

About the author: Richard E. Ford is an independent scholar who has done extensive research on the Great Pyramid. He has recently published a book on his findings, Lord of Eternity; Divine Order and the Great Pyramid, which can be ordered from

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