The Disappearance Of The Children Of Viracocha, Part 3: Cuzco: The City Which The Inca Found, Not Founded (cont.)
By Brien Foerster
Tiwanaku is believed to have been abandoned about 1000 AD as the result of a combination of things; an El Nino event that lasted 40 years, and the attack by war-like Aymara speaking Wari people. It is probable that the El Nino induced drought heavily weakened the population, thus allowing the Wari to easily overtake them.
The more radical thoughts about the age of Tiwanaku are most often attributed to the Bolivian engineer Arthur Posnansky, who postulated its age as being in the area of 12,000 years ago, and his claims were made in 1943 in his final and most important book Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man.
He calculated this date based on archeoastronomy, as follows. Since Earth is tilted on its axis in respect to the plane of the solar system, the resulting angle is known as the "obliqueness of the ecliptic" (one should not confuse this with another astronomical phenomenon known as "Precession", as critics of Posnansky have done). If viewed from the earth, the planets of our solar system travel across the sky in a line called the plane of the ecliptic.
At present our earth is tilted at an angle to of 23 degrees and 27 minutes, but this angle is not constant. The angle oscillates slowly between 22 degrees and 1 minute miminum to an extreme of 24 degrees and 5 minutes. A complete cycle takes roughly 41,000 years to complete. The alignment of the Kalasasaya temple at Tiwanaku depicts a tilt of the earth's axis amounting to 23 degrees, 8 minutes, 48 seconds, which according to astronomers, indicates a date of 15,000 B.C.
Between 1927 and 1930 Prof. Posnansky's conclusions were studied intensively by a number of authorities. Dr. Hans Ludendorff (Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam), Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticana, Prof. Arnold Kohlschutter (astronomer at Bonn University), and Rolf Müller (astronomer of the Institute of Astrophysics at Potsdam) verified the accuracy of Posnansky's calculations and vouched for the reliability of his conclusions.
The site called Puma punku, which is very close to Tiwanaku, is perhaps the most perplexing archaeological site not only in the Andes, but all of South America.
What is left of Puma punku (the gate of the Puma) is only a small percent of what must have once been there. Today we find the shattered remains, in red sandstone and diorite, of what must have once been an incredibly sophisticated technological culture.
Much of Puma punku, and Tiwanaku have been removed over the centuries by local people and government officials in La Paz, Bolivia, to make other buildings, and indeed, many of the stones which made up these places were crushed to make the rail bed of the train transport system.
Yet what is left of Puma punku is truly awe inspiring, not in volume, but in the incredibly carved surfaces that remain. Even a cursory inspection of the diorite stones shows an incredibly high precision of detailed cutting and sculpting. Tool marks are not visible, and the flat surfaces and 90 degree angles and plane interfaces are essentially perfect.
Could this have been achieved using bronze tools and obsidian tools? Highly unlikely. Indeed, the suggestion of such an idea is preposterous. Several holes, some as small as less than a centimetre in diameter, were clearly achieved with drills. And channels cut in others, some longer than a meter, must have been done with a router like tool.