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Nataraja: The Hindu Dance Lord
By Deepak Bhattacharya

Note

  1. Orissa has a current tradition of making the trinity&rsquos icons of Jagannath shrine with log from Daru tree.
  2. There was a deity-less east facing sand stone temple of approx. 25-30 ft height made of good quality sand stone. It was disbandeld by Orissa State Archaeology dept in the sixties.
  3. In the art of Mukteswara (9th-10th AD) the feet position is that of chatura (intelligent ). This means that chatura style came to be associated with Orissan Nataraja almost two centuries later, kumbha pada preceding and being reflected in the most important specimen, being given the most important placement.
  4. The 3 feet high loose sculpture of Nataraja etched in bass relief on a 5 inch thick fine grained sandstone slab presently housed in a small later built south facing shrine located to the north of the world famous torana within Mukteswar precinct at Ekamra (Bhubaneswar ) offers near exact homology with the Badami specimen in every parameter of art & thematic content, except that this sculpture has the double drums (puskara drums) in vertical position. Nataraja is seen on the front fa&ccedilade on many Saiva shrines of Orissa datable upto 17th\18th AD, few in medallion, few in rectangular formats.
  5. The medallion on south temple at Bharateswar complex also narrates similar chitra katha, feet position being kunchita, lalit kala is of lesser finish engraved on inferior plastic.
  6. Has been held as the center of Universe alias Chidambaram.
  7. Parasurameswar presents two such non divine male figures (secular) dressed differently can be said as great exponents of dance alias nritya-gurus.
  8. Has much similarity with the forehead Band on Damodar mukha - which is placed on Lingaraj&rsquos shakti every Kartik.

References

  1. K C Panigrahi History of Orissa, Kitab Mahal, 2nd ed., 1981, pp
  2. R P Mahapatra Decorative Art of Parasurameswar Temple, Orissa State Museum, 1991.
  3. K C Panigrahi Archaeological Remains at Bhubaneswar, Kitab Mahal, 2nd ed., 1981, pp 1.
  4. V S Apte&rsquos The practical Sanskrit English Dictionary, Ed. by Gode & Karve, Prasad Prakashan, Poona, 1957, Vol – I, pp 547.
  5. www.grahamhancock.com/forum/Dbhattacharya1.php
  6. www.grahamhancock.com/forum/default.htm
  7. V Dehejia Early Stone Temples of Orissa, Vikas Publishing House, 2nd ed. 1951, pp 79.
  8. T G Rao Elements of Hindu Iconography, Vol – II, Part – II, PL - LXVI, fig - 1.
  9. J N Bannerjee Development of Hindu Iconography, PL - XXXVI, fig - 2.
  10. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 Pl – LXII & LXIII.
  11. O.f.c.i.t. – 9 Pl – XXXIV – 4.
  12. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 Pl - LVI.
  13. K Krishana Murty Archaeology of Indian Musical Instruments, Sundeep Prakashan, Delhi, 1985.
  14. Marshall, Foucher & Majjumdar Sanchi, ASI, Vol I & II.
  15. P Bannerji Nataraja – The Dancing God, Cosmo Publication, New Delhi, 1985.
  16. O.f.c.i.t. – 5, 6 & 44.
  17. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 pp 231 – 240.
  18. T Satyamurti The Nataraja Temple – History Art & Architecture, Classical Publication, New Delhi, 1985, pp 3.
  19. I.b.i.d. pp - 2 & 3.
  20. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 pp 235.
  21. O.f.c.i.t. – 5 & 6.
  22. C R Das A Glimpse into Oriya Literature, Orissa Shitya Academy, Bhubaneswar, 1st ed, 1982, pp 10.
  23. Aloka Parasher Mlechhas in Early India – upto A D 600, Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN-81-215-0259-X.
  24. O.f.c.i.t. – 4, Part – II, pp 1296.
  25. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 pp 235.
  26. R P Mahapatra Temple Legends at Orissa, Orissa State Museum.
  27. O.f.c.i.t. – 17 pp 3.
  28. O.f.c.i.t. – 4, Part – II, pp 769.
  29. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 pp 235 – 240.
  30. A. C Sarangi The Development of Sanskrit from Panini to Patanjali Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, 1985.
  31. D N Pattanaik Oddisi Nritya [ Oriya ] Orissa Sangeet Natak Academy, 3rd revised ed. 1988.
  32. O.f.c.i.t. – 8 pp 10.
  33. I.b.i.d pp 2 - 22.
  34. I.b.i.d Plate – LXVI, fig 1.
  35. I.b.i.d Plate – LXIII.
  36. I.b.i.d Plate – LVI.
  37. Swami Prajyananda A History of Indian Music Ramkrishna Vedanta Muth, 1963, Vol – I, Plate 17.
  38. O.f.c.i.t. – 15, pp 20.
  39. O.f.c.i.t. – 14.
  40. K C Kar Taruna Sabda Kosa [ Oriya dictionary ], Grantha Mandir, Cuttack, 1966, 2nd Ed. Part &ndashII, pp 166.
  41. Bharata Natyasastra (Varanasi Ed.), Ch – XXXIII, pp 206.
  42. I.b.i.d. ] Ch IV, pp 265-266.
  43. Swami Prajyananda A History of Indian Music Ramkrishna Muth, Andadha Prakashan, 1965.
  44. J S Kulashestra Sangeeta Sastra (Theory of Indian Music), Hindi, Sangeeta Karyalay, Hathras, U P, 9th Ed,1970, pp 35.
  45. O.f.c.i.t. – 4, Part – II, pp 768.
  46. O.f.c.i.t. – 18, pp 2 – 4.
  47. C V Raman & T N Palit Acoustical Knowledge of the Hindus, Sir Asutosh Mookherjee Silver Jubilee, Vol-II, Cal. Uni. &ndash1922, pp 179 – 185.
  48. A Rangacharya Introduction to Bharata&rsquos Natya Sastra, Popular Prakashan, Bombay – 1988, (South India version).
  49. www.grahamhancock.com/forum/DBhattacharya2.php?p=7
  50. O.f.c.i.t. – 8, pp 235.
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