An Ancient Hindu Royal Throne
By Deepak Bhattacharya
G - Collateral finds & The Composite as a Tool
1 - GAS & its art variants are art signature of Yayati – I (of soma alias moon dynasty).
2 - JK & its variants including CSMJK are art signature of Yayati II (Kesari alias Leo dynasty).
3 - Yayati Kesari – II was the first Vaishnava sovereign of Orissa.
4 - That prior to Chuda Ganga it was Kesari monarch who possible switched his faith from Saiva to Vaishnava sect.
5 – Architecture & Engineering concept of the pidha jagamohana (which have no parallel) may be called as Kesari concept as it sports the JK series on all the sections of the pidhas in four cardinal direction. The apex of the jagamohana is a variant module of the Purna kumbha PK. PK & JK on a stepped roof form the crowning members of the jagamohana as kesari’s contribution.
6 - Lingaraj’s spire sports uda-singha (flying leo) & GAS. It is work of Yayati I.
7 - Lingaraj’s jagamohana is Yayati – II’s contribution as it sports only PK; JK & Pidha saili of roof with narasingha motifs guarding all the four cardinal directions.
8 - Narasingha nidarsan is material evidence of process la metamorphosis in the area of Hindu icon Jagannath’s. In otherwords Jagannath was Narasingha until 1025 AD; after 1025 he may have been known as Puroshattama (the best) long thereafter he became Jagannath ( lord of the world).
9 – Ancient Cuttack was Yayati Kesari- II’s choice as capital; which Chuda ganga continued with. Cuttack was not the capital of the Somavansis or the Bhauma-Kars.
10 – 11th AD which was otherwise considered as gray zone in Orissan art history period in fact is not.
11 - Yayati – II alias Kesari had only 15yrs of reign. In such short period he alike Kharagola laid the foundation on which swiveled the history of Orissa.
12 - He gave to Orissa a throne full with indigenous concepts permatised in solid granite.
13 - In not accepting any of Somavansi symbols or even religion, Kesari kula stands apart & independent of Soma kula. Kesari kula seem to evolve as a vibrant, separate one. The throne vindicates the position that Yayati II was anti pathic to Somavansis 11.
12 - The Runkuna chariot of Lingaraj seem to be another contribution of Yayati Kesari - II. It represents whole of the composite motif.
13 - The Papanasini seat may be the fore runner of this throne. It has uda-singha pair, it may be conjectured to be that of Yayati – I. This throne is in the precinct of a erstwhile prasada adjacent to Lingaraj complex.
14 - CSMJK are noted more in Puri, which indicates i ] – Yayati-II or his governor (Indradumnya ?) was much liked by the inhabitants there ii ] – Gov. was possibly a local person or was stationed there iii ] - CSMJK as work of such governor.
15 - If we apply the composite as a tool to evaluate the world famous Mukteswar torana it then indicates affinity with Bramheswara group 15. As a result of this study it now becomes apparent that Kolavati devi & Udyot Kesari could have been the patrons of Mukteswar torana and the jagamohanas (audience hall) of Mukteswara and Brahmeswara the art of which indicates that they were great patrons of Oddisi classical dance and such performing art had reached great refinement in their court
16 - By same methodology the Runkuna ratha indicates affinity with Kesari art.
17 – Again Mukteswar torana & the kirtimukhas on Bramheswara jagamohana indicates inter-affinity, a possible Udyot kesari contribution.
18 - The series of anga-sikharas that constitutes the Jagamohana’s north base at Jagannath temple is the archaeological remains of the untraced monument 8 built by Kesari or his governor Indradumnya for deity Narasingha, which pre dates the present spire. Identical anga-sikharas are noted at Natua ganesha temple at Puri; Raja rani; Runkuna Rath’s canopy; Mahavinayak at Jajpur; on monuments of 11th AD; etc. These are all Kesari contributions.