Human Anatomy in Ancient Stone Sculptures and Epigraphy as Evidence of Human Health Care Science in Ancient India
By Deepak Bhattacharya 1; L M Mukherjee 2
The Grecian Hippocratic school of medicine is dated to 6th B.C. and is not known for human dissection studies 1. TheVedas dated to millennias B.C. ( so said ) have similar prominent and exhaustive reference to non - invasive medicine 1. The Atharva Veda specifically enumerates treatment for leprosy 2 as well deals with human skeleton, etc4. The Atreya system as handed down by Charaka ( 4 - 5th B.C. )1 compiled by Jivanananda 3 and termed by modern researchers as Atreya -Charaka system # 3 or Indian medicine * clearly states that human body consists of 360 bones inclusive of 32 teeth ( danta ), 60 phalanges( anguli ), 20 long bones ( salaka ), 2 heels ( Parshni ), marrow ( majhnah ) contained in hallowed bones called ( nalakas ), 45 back bones alias spinal column ( pristha-gat-asthi ), four sira kapala or 4 pan shaped cranial bones ..1. Nails and components of the cervical vertebrae were accurately numbered under sub-headings; the human body was divided into 6 major parts( angas ) or six-partite alias Sadaanga 1. Susruta ( possibly was ) the first physician-surgeon ( saila chikitshaka ), describes a range of surgical instruments 5 and principles of operations 6. Laparotomy is dealt by Charaka 7. Atreya specialised in medicine 1. etc.
While it is known that Grecian specialists visited India 1. The reverse remains unreported.
#. The Atreya School is said to forbid use of aged and diseased skeleton, the Orissa School could be an independent or reformed or a later one; While Chamunda & Bhringi are all India Characters.
*. Scholars from Tubingen University- & other German & English scholars -are said to have thrown much light in this regard, in early part of last century.
No archaeology ( material evidence - in Osteology ) has so far been reported, neither any comparative studies made for or with material evidence. In this paper, sculptures of two skeletal figure are studied from musculo - skeletal angle, details identified, compared and contrasted with actual.
Hindu, Saivic ,45 feet high, west facing, best preserved monument of earliest cognate group, ornately curved, enshrining the Saivic aniconic composite symbol, composed of a cylinder, a triangle, a circle & a center point, placed in a square, colloquially termed as Shiva Linga and Shakti 14. The monument being dated by Archaeological Survey of India ( ASI ) to 7th A.D ,10; By Indologists to 6th and 7th A.D 11,12,13,; by Bhattacharya, Naik, et.al to between 170 BC - 261 A D ## .
At the front, at about 15 feet height on this monument called the temple of Parasurameswar on Kedar Gouri road at Bhubaneswar, in the province of Orissa, India ( eastern sea board ) 15, presents two sculptures showing anatomical details.
These two sculptures were singled out for closer, detailed & comparative study.
##. By use of astronomical model - which is a new yet to be accepted methodology.
Visited site, examined through binoculars and close up photographs by climbing atop Jagamohana ( hall of audience ) repeatedly for close physical examination. Compared & contrasted with standard publications & own hands on experience. Studied & compared with standard Hindu Iconographic & Historical / Archaeological texts.