A Study Of Catastrophes circa-3200bce and circa-2200bce
By Andy Blackard
There is substantial evidence that there were widespread climatic and cultural catastrophes near the approximate dates of 3200bce (5.2kya) and 2200bce (4.2kya). This study focuses very narrowly on solely these catastrophe periods and their subsequent recovery periods. It appears that these catastrophes included numerous and possibly interconnected climatic/oceanic/meteoritic/volcanic episodic events. However, this observation should not be confused with Velikovski's theories as he proposes entirely different dates and mechanisms than the available data suggest.
Additionally, there seems to be evidence of a subsequent recovery of civilization in around 3000bce (5.0kya) and 2000bce (4.0kya) after the former clusters of catastrophic events.
This is the sequence of events that I propose:
- circa 3200bce - Multi-Regional Catastrophes and Collapse of Uruk of Mesopotamia and Indian Cities
- circa 3000bce - Rebuilding of Civilization and Cultural Diffusion
- circa 2200bce - Multi-Regional Catastrophes and Collapse of Egyptian Old Kingdom, Harrapan Culture, Canaanite Settlements, Malta and Akkad
- circa 2000bce - Cultural Revivals, Migrations and Social Reorganizations
Furthermore, the catastrophic events clustered around the dates 3200bce and 2200bce do not appear to have been uniform, global events such as a global flood myth, for example. Rather it seems that they were a complex combination of different types of episodic events in different regions on the earth with possible cause and effect relationships. For example, a meteorite impact in one region on earth could have triggered vulcanism in another, which, in turn, triggered cooling in another, which, in turn, triggered drought in another region while triggering flooding in a different region. There also appear to have been sequential drought and flood events in certain regions.
I have been interested by ancient cultures for nearly all of my life as a hobby. As I have read more and more, I have noticed that many ancient cultural events that I read about from different parts of the world appeared to occur near the dates 3200bce and 2200bce and so I started cataloging them. These included the formation of cities around 3000bce in Mesopotamia and, later, the collapse of many cultures like the Old Kingdom of Egypt around 2200bce. These events may not have been worldwide in scope, but they do appear to have been multi-regional.
Graham Hancock has extensively researched another date, 10,500bce, in which many other synchronous events appear to have occurred around the globe at the end of the last great ice age .
In "Beyond the Younger Dryas - Collapse as Adaptation to Abrupt Climate Change in Ancient West Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean," Dr Harvey Weiss of Yale University describes four early Holocene abrupt climate changes in 10,800, 6,200, 3200 and 2200 bce. These coincide precisely with the dates that Mr. Hancock and myself have taken an interest in. Dr. Weiss also describes another event around 6200bce that significantly influenced the development of the ancient Egyptian culture.
Please note that the date estimates cited below from the scientific literature probably have an associated range of error of 50-300 years. But this is not a bad thing. This is a reality of measurement science. Given this range of error, any date in the range of 3000-3500 ( 3100 and 3400 for example) could actually be expressing a similar date of around 3200bce plus-or-minus the range of error. The consideration of precision and accuracy of measurement is something that those outside the field of science sometimes have difficulty with. The archeological context has to be used sometimes to place events in a more precise sequence. On the other hand, date estimates of say 3000 and 4000 are clearly different dates. Applying the upper limit of the error range, 3000 actually represents a range of 3000-300=2700 to 3000+300=3300 or 2700-3300 whereas the same treatment of the date 4000 yields the range 3700-4300 which does not overlap with the previous range and therefore is clearly related to a different time period. Reference  in the bibliography provides some very helpful examples if this is new to you.